to
end of page
At the present stage it
would be pertinent to establish some
additional concepts and assumptions of
significance which give rise and
support to this Alternative
Theory. It was noted early
that the mass of monolithic particles is taken
as function related to its common
boundary interfacial area with the EM
field and so they can be modeled into many ways but
keeping its original area
up. A fundamental concept of
physics taught us that systems tend
to reach its minimal energetic value. So
do particles
obviously. Another question
issued from this statement is that any
monolithic particle despite its uniqueness
behaves as an entire system
and some particles like protons can
perform fusion. Traditional
assumptions describe such phenomenon is due to
an attractive force. At the contrary
it is nothing but a retentive one despite
its ostensible supposedly attractive behavior.
This kind of force is really
a natural tendency of matter or
particles to reach the state of minimal
energetic level. Moreover of this
effect
is responsible the EM
field.
Also was supposed
being initiated after some gravitational
force but at the date there is no clear signs
to assert it. Consider two
fused single nucleons, it is well known that in this
state the total mass of the assembly is
less than the sum of individual masses it
means that some portion of their areas had lost
contact with the EM field this portion is
well known as Binding Energy or
Be. Clearly one can assume
that this retentive force is a result of
the inability to perform by themselves energy recovery to
redress nucleons to its natural
conditions. Recovery means gain area from
the EM field which is hardly to be easily
achieved . It must be taken
into account that all of the essays done were
over very old nuclides who comes already
assembled from the early times of
the universe in a randomly manner in a disordered situation
that is say a
plasma. Moreover it is not
sure that in actual artificial plasmas nuclei
yield were similar to those found in nature
owe mainly to big differences in medium
and temperature. Most
physicists are convinced that nucleons appear mainly
assembled in pairs and then each pair
reassembles with other pairs. To the
first mode of assemblage is attributed
the so called strong force. So for
the second step it would be defined
another force.
Several others facts must be taken into account. All of the
known
composed nuclides have at least one deuteron, that is one basic group
with its specific Binding Energy Beb. But not only single protons, deuterons,
and tritons can be found, also quadritrons,pentatrons, hexatrons and more
recently heptatrons were detected and measured.
Despite that the Beb of these last groups have not been precisely
measured to date they can fairly enter into nuclides compounds.
All of those groups are strictly monopoles with one charge unit.
For every one of those groups the individual Binding Energy is known,
at least from deuteron to hexatron, as isolated groups.
The total Beg between
all of the basic groups shares the main
portion of the total binding energy Bet.
Then for any nucleus with total binding energy Bet when its
composition
is known or supposed it is
possible calculate in a dedicated way
Beg and
Beb values and so evaluate the contact binding energy
for each
group. It can be seen that
the amount of Beg is higher with some
exceptions for rare isotopes than the total Beb.
There are many
possible arrangements for any cluster of
multitrons but still some assumptions can
be fairly hold. Multitrons or
multinucleons (groups of nucleons with only one
proton) have spin, magnetic moment and
quadrupolar electric moment.
Those facts do not prevent assume that multinucleons have fairly
a spherical shape after these three
facts : they are still monopoles, and
must attain their minimal energetic level and also have
aligned spin of 1/2.
Values measured of Beb were obtained from preassembled
multinucleons taken as they come in nature. So these bodies can be
taken by their behaviour as a big proton instead.
Some issues rest still not clearly described as nuclear density,
the mean binding energy, or binding energy per nucleon,
gravitational effects, the very unlikely neutron skin,
evenodd, nuclear models and the magic numbers.
Another fact is that after a given A value the binding energy tends
to a certain level even when these calculations were done computing
all of the nucleons individually and evaluate the mean Be.
Let assume that
multinucleons be spherical, then after three
groups such as ^{6}Li every new
group contacts or fuses with
three others
in a process of minimal energy level arrangement.
There are different class of groups that is bare proton, deuteron, triton,
quadritron, pentatron, hexatron and heptatron, always every sphere
contacts with three others.
Taken the values of
binding contact energy Bec per contact
group and assuming its minimal arrangement be it symmetric or
antisymmetric, this value starts at 11.923 Mev for ^{4}He and tends
towards a constant value after ^{44}Ti and only with D and T
approx. of 2.51 Mev per contact group or 15.06 Mev.
From that limit every new group(multinucleon) adds up six contacts
three from itself and three from
the others. Then taken into account
their intrinsic Be makes a total
Be of 17.28 Mev for deuterons and 23.54
for tritons, in fairly agreement with measured and tabulated
for high A isotopes over 40.
These calculations were done assuming that all of the Beg are
identical no matter how many groups
are involved. Also can be deduced that
inners groups have bigger Beg and decreases as number of
groups increases and tends to a constant
value Beg no matter the
nuclide radius, fusion contacts are
always three. Symmetries in
configuration stands for the quadupolar electric
moment only and is not taken into
account. For a given nucleus
whose particular total Bet value is well
known, can be deduced the aggregation of groups who fills it
in. Number of deuterons,
tritons, etc, can be calculated after the values
given in tables and simple
formulae: if the nuclide is believed
composed of D and T only then the
^{238}U have 38 deuterons and 54 tritons
then from [1] 38 times 17.28 Mev = 656.64 Mev
and from [2] 54 times 23.54 Mev = 1271.16 Mev
total Be = 1927.80 Mev  real 1801.695 Mev 
divided by 238 gives 8.1 Mev/nucleon  real 7.57013 Mev 
This result indicates that probably there were some quadritrons
or pentatrons or even hexatrons.
Results calculated after this procedure compared to
the real ones yields a curve similar to that well known of
mean
values Be per nucleon.
A more speculative analysis with more precise results
is developed in the
next page.
. .

Binding Energy
nomenclature:
Bet = total of an
analyzed nucleus.
Beg = net of a group
or multitron.
Bec = partial contact
with other
groups.( total six )
Beb = intrinsic of group.
G stands for electrically
neutral systems as,
neutrons atoms or
molecules as already
was suggested by
notable theorists, and
it is worthy of note
that it was not taken
into account into the
Standard Model Theory.
gain area in order
to normalize groups
or individual particles
means some specific
action to be imposed
to the EM field.
it is assumed that
no single neutrons
are fused.
Beg=BetBeb
these properties were
who enlightened the
way to elucidate the
Standard Model Theory.
respectfully speaking.
contacts as fusion
points between groups.
total contact number
of a nucleus:
Nct = 6Z12 [101]
there are six fusion
contacts for every
added group.
[1] 15.06 + 2.22
total deuteron Be
[2] 15.06 + 8.4818
total triton Be
calculation of T
from a given D
D = 3ZA [102]
T = ZD [103]
values are
provisional and might
be modified anytime.
basic nuclear data
borrowed from
"The 1993 Atomic
Mass evaluation"
by G. Audi and
A.H. Wapstra.
.
. .
