protaldo's main body
    Page 2                              Nuclear Assemblages                  deutsche español française

                                                             to end of page

      At the present stage it would be pertinent to establish some additional
    concepts and assumptions of significance which give rise and support
    to this Alternative Theory.
      It was noted early that the mass of monolithic particles is taken as
    function related to its common boundary interfacial area with
    the EM field and so they can be modeled into many ways but keeping
    its original area up.
      A fundamental concept of physics taught us that systems tend to
    reach its minimal energetic value. So do particles obviously.
      Another question issued from this statement is that any monolithic
    particle despite its uniqueness behaves as an entire system
    and some particles like protons can perform fusion.
      Traditional assumptions describe such phenomenon is due to an
    attractive force. At the contrary it is nothing but a retentive
    one despite its ostensible supposedly attractive behavior.
      This kind of force is really a natural tendency of matter -or particles-
    to reach the state of minimal energetic level. Moreover of this effect
    is responsible the EM field.
      Also was supposed being initiated after some gravitational
     force but at the date there is no clear signs to assert it.
      Consider two fused single nucleons, it is well known that in this state
    the total mass of the assembly is less than the sum of individual
    masses it means that some portion of their areas had lost contact
    with the EM field this portion is well known as Binding Energy or Be.
      Clearly one can assume that this retentive force is a result
    of the inability to perform by themselves energy recovery to redress
    nucleons to its natural conditions. Recovery means gain area from the
    EM field which is hardly to be easily achieved .
      It must be taken into account that all of the essays done were over
    very old nuclides who comes already assembled from the early times
    of the universe in a randomly manner in a disordered situation
    that is say a plasma.
      Moreover it is not sure that in actual artificial plasmas nuclei yield
    were similar to those found in nature owe mainly to big differences
    in medium and temperature.
      Most physicists are convinced that nucleons appear mainly assembled
    in pairs and then each pair reassembles with other pairs.  To the first
    mode of assemblage is attributed the so called strong force. So for the
    second step it would be defined another force.
      Several others facts must be taken into account. All of the known
    composed nuclides have at least one deuteron, that is one basic group
    with its specific Binding Energy Beb. But not only single protons, deuterons,
    and tritons can be found, also quadritrons,pentatrons, hexatrons and more
    recently heptatrons were detected and measured.
       Despite that the Beb of these last groups have not been precisely
     measured to date they can fairly enter into nuclides compounds.
       All of those groups are strictly mono-poles with one charge unit.
       For every one of those groups the individual Binding Energy is known,
     at least from deuteron to hexatron, as isolated groups.
      The total Beg between all of the basic groups shares the main
     portion of the total binding energy Bet.
       Then for any nucleus with total binding energy Bet when its composition
     is known or supposed it is possible calculate in a dedicated way
    Beg and Beb values and so evaluate the contact binding energy for
    each group.
      It can be seen that the amount of Beg is higher -with some
     exceptions for rare isotopes- than the total Beb.
      There are many possible arrangements for any cluster of multitrons
    but still some assumptions can be fairly hold.
      Multitrons or multinucleons (groups of nucleons with only one proton)
    have spin, magnetic moment and quadrupolar electric moment.
       Those facts do not prevent assume that multinucleons have fairly
    a spherical shape after these three facts : they are still mono-poles,
    and must attain their minimal energetic level and also have
    aligned spin of 1/2.
       Values measured of Beb were obtained from preassembled
    multinucleons taken as they come in nature. So these bodies can be
    taken by their behaviour as a big proton instead.
      Some issues rest still not clearly described as nuclear density,
    the mean binding energy, or binding energy per nucleon,
    gravitational effects, the very unlikely neutron skin,
    even-odd, nuclear models and the magic numbers.
      Another fact is that after a given A value the binding energy tends
     to a certain level even when these calculations were done computing
    all of the nucleons individually and evaluate the mean Be.
      Let assume that multinucleons be spherical, then after three groups
    such as 6Li every new group contacts or fuses with three others
    in a process of minimal energy level arrangement.
      There are different class of groups that is bare proton, deuteron, triton,
    quadritron, pentatron, hexatron and heptatron, always every sphere
    contacts with three others.
      Taken the values of binding contact energy Bec per contact
    group and assuming its minimal arrangement be it symmetric or
    antisymmetric, this value starts at 11.923 Mev for 4He
    and tends towards a constant value after 44Ti and only with D and T
    approx. of 2.51 Mev per contact group or 15.06 Mev.
      From that limit every new group(multinucleon) adds up six contacts
    -three from itself and three from the others-. Then taken into account
    their intrinsic Be makes a total Be of 17.28 Mev for deuterons and
    23.54 for tritons, in fairly agreement with measured and tabulated
    for high A isotopes over 40.
     These calculations were done assuming that all of the Beg are
    identical no matter how many groups are involved. Also can be deduced
    that inners groups have bigger Beg and decreases as number of groups
    increases and tends to a constant value Beg no matter the nuclide
    radius, fusion contacts are always three.
      Symmetries in configuration stands for the quadupolar electric moment
    only and is not taken into account.
      For a given nucleus whose particular total Bet value
    is well known, can be deduced the aggregation of groups who fills it in.
      Number of deuterons, tritons, etc, can be calculated after the values
    given in tables and simple formulae:
    if the nuclide is believed composed of D and T only then
    the 238U have 38 deuterons and 54 tritons
               then from [1] 38 times 17.28 Mev = 656.64 Mev
         and from [2] 54 times 23.54 Mev = 1271.16 Mev
                              total Be = 1927.80 Mev    - real 1801.695 Mev -
    divided by 238 gives 8.1 Mev/nucleon      - real 7.57013 Mev -
      This result indicates that probably there were some quadritrons
    or pentatrons or even hexatrons.
      Results calculated after this procedure compared to
    the real ones yields a curve similar to that well known of mean
    values Be per nucleon.
      A more speculative analysis with more precise results
    is developed in the next page.
.                                                                .


  •  Binding Energy
  •   nomenclature:
  • Bet = total of an
  •   analyzed nucleus.
  • Beg = net of a group
  •    or multitron.
  • Bec = partial contact
  •    with other
  • groups.( total six )
  • Beb = intrinsic of group.
  • G stands for electrically
  • neutral systems as,
  • neutrons atoms or
  • molecules as already
  • was suggested by
  • notable theorists, and
  • it is worthy of note
  • that it was not taken
  • into account into the
  • Standard Model Theory.
  • gain area in order
  • to normalize groups
  • or individual particles
  • means some specific
  • action to be imposed
  • to the EM field.
  • it is assumed that
  • no single neutrons
  • are fused.
  • Beg=Bet-Beb
  • these properties were
  • who enlightened the
  • way to elucidate the
  • Standard Model Theory.
  • respectfully speaking.
  • contacts as fusion
  • points between groups.
  • total contact number
  •    of a nucleus:
  •    Nct = 6Z-12  [101]
  • there are six fusion
  • contacts for every
  • added group.
  • [1] 15.06 + 2.22
  • total deuteron Be
  • [2] 15.06 + 8.4818
  • total triton Be
  • calculation of T
  • from a given D
  • D = 3Z-A [102]
  • T = Z-D [103]
  • values are
  • provisional and might
  • be modified anytime.
  • basic nuclear data
  • borrowed from
  • "The 1993 Atomic
  • Mass evaluation"
  • by G. Audi and
  • A.H. Wapstra.
  • stat counter . . .
  •   top of page   next   previous   home   Print this Page
    
    
    
                       to exchange points of view        
    
    .      pagemaker alditus from the Argentine      .
    first published on January 18 of 2006 page updated: 10/09