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At the present stage it
would be pertinent to establish some
concepts and assumptions of
significance which give rise and
to this Alternative
It was noted early
that the mass of monolithic particles is taken
function related to its common
boundary interfacial area with
field and so they can be modeled into many ways but
its original area
A fundamental concept of
physics taught us that systems tend
reach its minimal energetic value. So
issued from this statement is that any
particle despite its uniqueness
behaves as an entire system
and some particles like protons can
assumptions describe such phenomenon is due to
attractive force. At the contrary
it is nothing but a retentive
its ostensible supposedly attractive behavior.
This kind of force is really
a natural tendency of matter -or
to reach the state of minimal
energetic level. Moreover of this
is responsible the EM
Also was supposed
being initiated after some gravitational
force but at the date there is no clear signs
to assert it.
fused single nucleons, it is well known that in this
the total mass of the assembly is
less than the sum of individual
means that some portion of their areas had lost
with the EM field this portion is
well known as Binding Energy or
Clearly one can assume
that this retentive force is a result
the inability to perform by themselves energy recovery to
nucleons to its natural
conditions. Recovery means gain area from
EM field which is hardly to be easily
It must be taken
into account that all of the essays done were
very old nuclides who comes already
assembled from the early times
the universe in a randomly manner in a disordered situation
that is say a
Moreover it is not
sure that in actual artificial plasmas nuclei
were similar to those found in nature
owe mainly to big differences
physicists are convinced that nucleons appear mainly
in pairs and then each pair
reassembles with other pairs. To the
mode of assemblage is attributed
the so called strong force. So for
second step it would be defined
Several others facts must be taken into account. All of the
composed nuclides have at least one deuteron, that is one basic group
with its specific Binding Energy Beb. But not only single protons, deuterons,
and tritons can be found, also quadritrons,pentatrons, hexatrons and more
recently heptatrons were detected and measured.
Despite that the Beb of these last groups have not been precisely
measured to date they can fairly enter into nuclides compounds.
All of those groups are strictly mono-poles with one charge unit.
For every one of those groups the individual Binding Energy is known,
at least from deuteron to hexatron, as isolated groups.
The total Beg between
all of the basic groups shares the main
portion of the total binding energy Bet.
Then for any nucleus with total binding energy Bet when its
is known or supposed it is
possible calculate in a dedicated way
Beb values and so evaluate the contact binding energy
It can be seen that
the amount of Beg is higher -with some
exceptions for rare isotopes- than the total Beb.
There are many
possible arrangements for any cluster of
but still some assumptions can
be fairly hold.
multinucleons (groups of nucleons with only one
have spin, magnetic moment and
quadrupolar electric moment.
Those facts do not prevent assume that multinucleons have fairly
a spherical shape after these three
facts : they are still mono-poles,
must attain their minimal energetic level and also have
aligned spin of 1/2.
Values measured of Beb were obtained from preassembled
multinucleons taken as they come in nature. So these bodies can be
taken by their behaviour as a big proton instead.
Some issues rest still not clearly described as nuclear density,
the mean binding energy, or binding energy per nucleon,
gravitational effects, the very unlikely neutron skin,
even-odd, nuclear models and the magic numbers.
Another fact is that after a given A value the binding energy tends
to a certain level even when these calculations were done computing
all of the nucleons individually and evaluate the mean Be.
Let assume that
multinucleons be spherical, then after three
such as 6Li every new
group contacts or fuses with
in a process of minimal energy level arrangement.
There are different class of groups that is bare proton, deuteron, triton,
quadritron, pentatron, hexatron and heptatron, always every sphere
contacts with three others.
Taken the values of
binding contact energy Bec per contact
group and assuming its minimal arrangement be it symmetric or
antisymmetric, this value starts at 11.923 Mev for 4He
towards a constant value after 44Ti and only with D and T
approx. of 2.51 Mev per contact group or 15.06 Mev.
From that limit every new group(multinucleon) adds up six contacts
-three from itself and three from
the others-. Then taken into account
their intrinsic Be makes a total
Be of 17.28 Mev for deuterons and
for tritons, in fairly agreement with measured and tabulated
for high A isotopes over 40.
These calculations were done assuming that all of the Beg are
identical no matter how many groups
are involved. Also can be deduced
inners groups have bigger Beg and decreases as number of
increases and tends to a constant
value Beg no matter the
radius, fusion contacts are
configuration stands for the quadupolar electric
only and is not taken into
For a given nucleus
whose particular total Bet value
known, can be deduced the aggregation of groups who fills it
Number of deuterons,
tritons, etc, can be calculated after the values
given in tables and simple
if the nuclide is believed
composed of D and T only then
238U have 38 deuterons and 54 tritons
then from  38 times 17.28 Mev = 656.64 Mev
and from  54 times 23.54 Mev = 1271.16 Mev
total Be = 1927.80 Mev - real 1801.695 Mev -
divided by 238 gives 8.1 Mev/nucleon - real 7.57013 Mev -
This result indicates that probably there were some quadritrons
or pentatrons or even hexatrons.
Results calculated after this procedure compared to
the real ones yields a curve similar to that well known of
values Be per nucleon.
A more speculative analysis with more precise results
is developed in the
Bet = total of an
Beg = net of a group
Bec = partial contact
groups.( total six )
Beb = intrinsic of group.
G stands for electrically
neutral systems as,
neutrons atoms or
molecules as already
was suggested by
notable theorists, and
it is worthy of note
that it was not taken
into account into the
Standard Model Theory.
gain area in order
to normalize groups
or individual particles
means some specific
action to be imposed
to the EM field.
it is assumed that
no single neutrons
these properties were
who enlightened the
way to elucidate the
Standard Model Theory.
contacts as fusion
points between groups.
total contact number
of a nucleus:
Nct = 6Z-12 
there are six fusion
contacts for every
 15.06 + 2.22
total deuteron Be
 15.06 + 8.4818
total triton Be
calculation of T
from a given D
D = 3Z-A 
T = Z-D 
provisional and might
be modified anytime.
basic nuclear data
"The 1993 Atomic
by G. Audi and
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